either in reality or appearance, at the head of all codes, even of those that operated otherwise. But the closer contact of men with one another and the progress of their knowledge brought about an endless series of mutual actions and needs, which ever lay beyond the foresight of the laws and below the actual power of individuals. From this epoch began the despotism of opinion, which afforded the only means for obtaining from others those 鏉窞spa鎸夋懇甯?benefits and averting those evils, for which the laws failed to provide. It is this opinion that is the trouble equally of the wise man and the fool; that has raised the semblance of virtue to higher credit than virtue itself; that even makes the rascal 鏉窞榫欏嚖濡冨瓙闃佺櫨鑺卞潑 turn missionary, 鏉窞瀹跺涵寮忓吇鐢?because he finds his own interest therein. Hence the favour of men became not only useful but necessary, if a man would not fall below the general level. Hence, not only does the ambitious man seek after such favour as useful to himself, and the vain man go begging for it as a proof of his merit, but the man of honour also may be seen to require it as a necessity. This honour is a condition that very many men attach to their own existence. Born after the formation of society, it could not be placed in the general deposit; it is rather a momentary return to the 鏉窞绾﹀彛spa鑱旂郴鏂瑰紡 state of nature, a momentary
withdrawal of one鈥檚 self from the dominion of those laws which, under the circumstances, fail to afford the sufficient defence required of them.
Hence both in the state of extreme political liberty and in that of extreme political subjection the 婊ㄦ睙鍝噷瓒虫荡鏄崵鐨?ideas of honour disappear or get perfectly confused with others. For in the former the despotism of the laws renders the pursuit of the favour of others of no avail; and in the latter state the despotism of men, by destroying civil existence, reduces everybody to a precarious and temporary personality. Honour, therefore, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies that are a mitigated form of despotism, being to them what revolutions are to despotic States, namely, a momentary return to the state of nature, and a reminder to the chief ruler of the 鏉窞鎸夋懇淇濆仴鍏ㄥ浼氭墍 condition of primitive equality.
CHAPTER XXIX. DUELS.
From this necessity of the favour of other people arose private duels, which sprang up precisely in an anarchical state of the laws. It is said they were unknown to antiquity, perhaps because the ancients did not meet suspiciously armed in the temples, the theatres, or with friends; perhaps because the duel was an ordinary and common sight, presented to the people by gladiators, who were slaves or low people, and freemen disdained to be thought and called private gladiators. In vain has it been sought to extirpate the custom by edicts of death against any man accepting a challenge, for it is founded on that which some men fear more than death; since without the favour of his fellows the man of honour foresees himself exposed either to become a merely solitary being, a condition 鏉窞妗戞嬁ml insufferable to a sociable man, or to become the butt of insults and disgrace which, from their constant operation, prevail over the fear